The TNO-10 dummy was developed as a loading device for testing vehicle safety belts in a simulated crash situation. The dummy represents a 50th percentile male adult in general size and weight distribution. For reasons of simplicity the dummy has no lower arms and only one lower leg. The dummy was developed as a test device for ECE-regulation no. 16; "Uniform provisions concerning the approval of safety belts and restraint systems for adult occupants of power driven vehicles" and for EEC directive 82/319.


The dummy consists mainly of 6 parts: head; neck; torso; two upper legs and one lower leg. The parts are connected by joints which allow movement in the mid-sagittal plane.


The head is a hollow polyurethane form reinforced by a polyester skull. The head can be rotated about an Atlas-axis joint. Neck The neck consists of 6 reinforced polyurethane discs around a steel roller chain. The stiffness of the neck is adjustable by means of a tensioning device.


The frame of the torso mainly consists of a steel skeleton covered by polyurethane. The skeleton consists of a steel hip tube, a roller chain representing the spinal column, a steel plate frame representing the ribs and a steel construction to represent the sternum. 6 Polyurethane tuning weights, each weighing 1 kilogram, are supplied with the dummy.

Upper Legs

The upper legs consist of a polyurethane covered steel frame, provided with steel tubes at both ends to accommodate the hip joint on one side and the knee joint on the other. The hip joint is provided with space to fit 6 steel tuning weights.

Lower Leg

The lower leg is a polyurethane covered steel tube with a steel footplate on one side and a steel tube on the other side.


The dummy is covered by a special overall accommodating the single leg. The overall is made of cotton and reinforced by a 200 mm wide strap around the lap area.

Chest Cushion

A soft foam cushion must be placed on the chest under the overall. The chest cushion compensates for the stiffness of the dummy's chest. The cushion is made of polyethylene foam.